Diabetes is really five different diseases, not just Types 1 & 2

04 March, 2018, 05:07 | Author: Homer Porter
  • There is often confusion between MODY and Type 1 Diabetes as both are found to affect young people or children. Type 1 Diabetes is diagnosed in those suffering from MODY leading to misdiagnosis

Type 1 is an auto-immune disease which can not now be cured. But researchers in Finland and Sweden say that there is a more complex picture, and that the results of their study will usher in a new period of personalized medications, the BBC reports. Most diagnoses are type 2 (75-85%), and while it's known that type 2 disease is highly variable, few attempts have been made to explore these distinctions.

Cluster 5: Mild diabetes among mostly older patients, accounting for 34 to 47% of cases.

Scientists say diabetes is five separate diseases, and treatment could be custom fitted to each frame.

Initially looked very similar to cluster 1, but the immune system in these patients was not at fault.

Cluster 2: Severe insulin-deficient diabetes.

In the new study lead author Prof Xuilong Xu and colleagues discovered that leflunomide not only normalised blood glucose levels, but caused cells to start responding to insulin again. Diabetes is growing faster than many other major health issues, yet the medical classification hasn't been updated in two decades.

Funding was provided by the Swedish Research Council, European Research Council, Vinnova, the Academy of Finland, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Scania University Hospital, Sigrid Jusélius Foundation, the European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking, Vaasa Hospital, Jakobstadsnejden Heart Foundation, Folkhälsan Research Foundation, the Ollqvist Foundation and the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research. It is usually diagnosed in childhood and is caused by the body's immune system wrongly destroying cells in the pancreas that make insulin.

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Researchers say all of the newly classified subgroups are genetically distinct and have numerous differences, including the age at which they tend to occur and different levels of risk for complications such as kidney disease.

Cluster 2: Severe insulin-deficient diabetes affects young people with high blood sugar, low insulin production and moderate insulin resistance.

Cluster 3 (15.3 percent): Severe insulin resistant diabetes (SIRD) with insulin resistance and high BMI.

Diabetes is a more diverse disease than medicine now acknowledges - and treatments could be improved by splitting the disease into more types, according to a new study. Cluster 3 (n = 1,373) was characterized by severe insulin resistance and high BMI, whereas cluster 4 (n = 1,942) was characterized by obesity, but not insulin resistance. By analysing 13,270 diabetics, . the study identified three... These patients were at a higher risk of developing kidney disease.

Severe autoimmune diabetes, broadly similar to type 1 in that it affected patients at a younger age leaving them seemingly unable to produce insulin. "Existing treatment guidelines are limited by the fact they respond to poor metabolic control when it has developed, but do not have the means to predict which patients will need intensified treatment".

Diabetes falls into five categories rather than two, according to a study that promises new personalised treatments.

Cluster 4: Mild obesity-related diabetes - affects obese patients but is less serious. Further research is needed to see whether these 5 clusters hold true for non-Scandinavian populations.

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